Author

About the Author
Darren is a 30 year veteran of law enforcement and criminal investigations. He currently serves as an investigator for the Crawford County Missouri coroner’s office. He holds credentials as an instructor for the Missouri Sheriff’s Training Academy, has served as president of the Missouri Medical Examiners and Coroners Association, and is certified and credentialed in numerous fields of investigation. He holds the position of lead instructor and facilitator for the Coroner Talk™ community as he speaks and writes in the area of death investigation and scene management.

Workplace Bullying

workplace_bullying

 

Workplace Bullying is repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators. It is abusive conduct that is :

This definition was used in the 2014 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey. Its national prevalence was assessed. Read the Survey results.

Workplace Bullying…

  • Is driven by perpetrators’ need to control the targeted individual(s).
  • Is initiated by bullies who choose their targets, timing, location, and methods.
  • Is a set of acts of commission (doing things to others) or omission (withholding resources from others)
  • Requires consequences for the targeted individual
  • Escalates to involve others who side with the bully, either voluntarily or through coercion.
  • Undermines legitimate business interests when bullies’ personal agendas take precedence over work itself.
  • Is akin to domestic violence at work, where the abuser is on the payroll.

Please know two things:

Bullying is a systematic campaign of interpersonal destruction that jeopardizes your health, your career, the job you once loved. Bullying is a non-physical, non-homicidal form of violence and, because it is violence and abusive, emotional harm frequently results. You may not be the first person to have noticed that you were bullied. Check to see how many of these indicators match yours.

Remember, you did not cause bullying to happen. We’ve broken down the major reasons why bullies bully. The primary reason bullying occurs so frequently in workplaces is that bullying is not yet illegal. Bullying is four times more common than either sexual harassment or racial discrimination on the job.

Should you confront the bully? If you could have, you would have. Instead, use the WBI-suggested 3-Step Method. Remember, put your health first. Don’t believe the lies told about you. Spend time with loved ones and friends. At times of debilitating stress like this, you must not be isolated. Isolation will only make the stress worse.

As we said, to date, no U.S. state has passed an anti-bullying law for the workplace.

* This article is a re-print if excerpts from  Workplace Bullying Institute   To read full article and see many more resources click over to there site.Anita Brook-corner talk-secondary stress

Todays guest is Anita Brooks  of anitabrooks.com 

 


anita brooks asphyxia aurora auto-erotic auto-erotica batmanburnout child abuse colorado Colorado Coroners communication compassion  compassion fatigue corone rcrime scene crime scene photography csidarren dake death death investigation denver deputy detective ebola emergency care field fire firefighterfire fighter fire fighter training  getting through what you can’t get overmedical examiner murderparamedic  police police training PTSD scene command sheriffshooting sids suicidesymptoms of compassion fatiguetheater trauma victims who is at risk for compassion fatigue

Blood Pattern Analysis

Blood_SpatterBecause blood behaves according to certain scientific principles, trained bloodstain pattern analysts can examine the blood evidence left behind and draw conclusions as to how the blood may have been shed. From what may appear to be a random distribution of bloodstains at a crime scene, analysts can categorize the stains by gathering information from spatter patterns, transfers, voids and other marks that assist investigators in recreating the sequence of events that occurred after bloodshed. This form of physical evidence requires the analyst to recognize and interpret patterns to determine how those patterns were created.

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the interpretation of bloodstains at a crime scene in order to recreate the actions that caused the bloodshed. Analysts examine the size, shape, distribution and location of the bloodstains to form opinions about what did or did not happen.

BPA uses principles of biology (behavior of blood), physics (cohesion, capillary action and velocity) and mathematics (geometry, distance, and angle) to assist investigators in answering questions such as:

  • Where did the blood come from?
  • What caused the wounds?
  • From what direction was the victim wounded?
  • How were the victim(s) and perpetrator(s) positioned?
  • What movements were made after the bloodshed?
  • How many potential perpetrators were present?
  • Does the bloodstain evidence support or refute witness statements?

Why and when is bloodstain pattern analysis used?

Bloodstain evidence is most often associated with violent acts such as assault, homicide, abduction, suicide or even vehicular accidents. Analyzing the size, shape, distribution, overall appearance and location of bloodstains at a crime scene helps investigators by answering basic questions including:

  • What occurred?
  • Where did the events occur?
  • Approximately when and in what sequence?
  • Who was there? Where were they in relation to each other?
  • What did not occur?

    One of the most important functions of bloodstain pattern analysis is to support or corroborate witness statements and laboratory and post-mortem findings. For example, if the medical examiner determines the cause of death is blunt force trauma to the victim’s head, the pattern and volume of blood spatter should be consistent with a blunt instrument striking the victim one or more times on the head. Conversely, if the spatter resembles that seen in expirated blood spray, the analyst will check the medical examiner or pathologist reports for injuries that can cause the presence of blood in the nose, throat or respiratory system of the victim. If blood is not reported in these locations, the analyst may be able to exclude expiration as the possible cause of that spatter pattern..

READ MORE AND GET YOU FREE EBOOK DOWNLOAD

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A Simplified Guide To Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

 

 

 

A Case For Professional Ethics

ethicsProfessional Ethics encompass the personal, organizational and corporate standards of behaviour expected of professionals. Professionals, and those working in acknowledged professions, exercise specialist knowledge and skill. Most professions have internally enforced codes of practice that members of the profession must follow to prevent exploitation of the client and to preserve the integrity of the profession. This is not only for the benefit of the client but also for the benefit of those belonging to the profession. Disciplinary codes allow the profession to define a standard of conduct and ensure that individual practitioners meet this standard, by disciplining them from the professional body if they do not practice accordingly. This allows those professionals who act with conscience to practice in the knowledge that they will not be undermined  by those who have fewer ethical qualms. It also maintains the public’s trust in the profession, encouraging the public to continue seeking their services.

Ethical Behavior is also defined as a set, or system of, moral values and principles that are based on honesty and truthfulness and have been accepted as professional standards. To police officers, coroners, death investigators and criminal justice in general;  the ethical mind-set additionally includes:  Integrity, courage and allegiance.   Let’s make a case for professional ethics.

Professional Ethics in Medicolegal Death Investigation

Paul R. Parker III, B.S., D-ABMDI 

  1. Introduction
    1. MLDI personnel are placed in a position of public trust
      1. We are involved at the most catastrophic of times for decedents and next-of-kin (NOK)
    2. Plenty of materials re: ethics and law enforcement
      1. Not necessarily on ethics and medicolegal death investigation (MLDI)
    3. Plenty of emphasis on actual MLDI but:
      1. Limited focus on the ethics, character, and behavior of MLDI personnel
      2. Limited focus on management/supervision of MLDI personnel
    4. National Academy of Sciences: Strengthening Forensic Science in US (2009)
      1. Recommended a National Code of Ethics for all forensic science professionals

 

  1. Professional Ethics
  2. Edwin Delattre (Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing)
    1. Character
      1. First nature
        1. Instant gratification as infants, indifferent to the effect of our wants on others
      2. Second nature
        1. As grow, learn, and are trained develop better or worse dispositions and habits
        2. Unless possessing an abnormal defect, most of the time good or bad character depends upon upbringing
  • Bad habits are hard to break
    1. Character can be reformed later in life
  1. Good character can be obtained by habituation in youth, observation and imitation of others, rejection of bad behavior by others, and continued practice of behaving well
    1. Challenged when growing up and not just made to do easy and interesting tasks results in people who are incapable of doing anything that is disagreeable and does not result in immediate gratification
  2. Types of character
    1. Bad character
      1. Seek opportunities to profit from others
      2. Must be removed from a position of public trust
    2. Uncontrolled
      1. They have a “price’ and can be reached
      2. Must be removed from a position of public trust
    3. Self-controlled
      1. Will do the right thing but resent it and the standard to which they are held
      2. Tension between duty and desire
      3. Management must provide guidance and leadership on how to deal with temptation
    4. Excellent
      1. Truly incorruptible
      2. Money is only “green paper”
    5. Intelligence without good character is dangerous
  3. Front Page Test
  4. What do you do when no one is watching
  5. Doing the right thing at the right time in the right way for the right reason toward the right people
  6. Duty to profession
    1. Education
    2. Continuous improvement
    3. Focus on demeanor, appearance
  7. Duty to public
  8. Noblest motive is the public good
  9. Confidentiality
  10. Respect for decedent
    1. Cover body at scene
    2. Manipulation during reparation for transport
    3. Comments about
      1. “Crispy critter”
      2. “Floater”
  • “Decomp”
  1. “Ped Spread”
  1. Respect for NOK
    1. Interact with them at their most vulnerable and lowest period of life
  2. Safeguarding of property
    1. Last notified and on-scene, first accused of taking something, inappropriate activities
    2. Theft of personal property/money
      1. From scene
      2. From body
    3. Theft of medication
  3. Integrity
    1. Truth telling
      1. No lying or omissions
    2. Falsification of documents
      1. Time cards
      2. Reports
    3. False statements during investigations
      1. Cases
        1. Scenes
        2. Telephone
      2. Internal investigations
    4. Impartiality and neutrality
    5. Reports
      1. Thorough
      2. Factual
        1. Leave anything out?
          1. Conversations with pathologists, other investigators
        2. NOK
          1. Notification
            1. Knock once (lightly) and then leave a card
            2. Due diligence in searching for them
          2. Interaction with NOK
            1. What to disclose to them during notification, investigation, follow-up
            2. What to leave out during conversations
          3. Timeliness of interaction with NOK
            1. Prior to media notification of cause and manner
          4. Extent of interaction with
            1. Developing personal relationships
          5. Expectation of gratitude
        3. Harassment, bullying of co-workers, subordinates, gossiping
        4. Public life vs. private life
          1. Appropriate activities while on-duty
            1. Above reproach
            2. Professional
  • Moral and ethical behaviors, not:
    1. Inappropriate relationships/sex on-duty
    2. Alcohol
    3. Theft
    4. Disrespect
    5. Gratuities
    6. Favoritism
    7. Inappropriate activities with decedents
  1. Appropriate activities while off-duty
    1. Criminal activities
    2. Alcohol
  • Sex
  1. Domestic violence

 

  • Fostering Professional Integrity
    1. MLDI personnel must be trust-worthy and of high character and integrity
    2. Selecting right people
      1. Background
        1. Written
        2. Interview
        3. Role playing
        4. Psychological
        5. Polygraph
        6. Criminal history check
          1. LE sends background investigators to talk to neighbors, former acquaintances
        7. Credit check
      2. New hire
        1. Code of ethics
          1. Most include:
            1. Must not exercise professional or personal conduct adverse to best interests of agency/certifying body
            2. Must not misrepresent education, training, experience
  • Must not misrepresent data, findings, etc.
  1. Code of conduct
    1. Should include:
      1. decedents, customers, and co-workers shall be treated with dignity, respect, and courtesy at all times
      2. services shall be provided in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local laws, rules and regulations,
  • working environment shall be free from all forms of harassment, discrimination, or intimidation shall be maintained
  1. employee will not be required to compromise his or her appropriate or established professional standards or objectivity in the performance of his or her duties
  2. participate in and encourage activities that promote quality assurance and continuous improvement
  3. work culture that promotes the prevention, detection, and resolution of instances of conduct that do not conform to ethical or legal standards and to this Code of Conduct
  1. Relies upon:
    1. Members willing to follow
    2. Management must enforce/”buy in”
  2. Training program
  3. Policies
  4. Procedures
  5. Probationary period
  • Continuing
    1. Management must model ethical behavior
      1. Walk the walk
      2. Do not look the other way when it comes to ethics and integrity issues
    2. Peer counseling

 

Practical Cultural Guidelines For Death Investigators

globe [Converted]Culture includes the beliefs, customs, and arts of a particular society, group, or place. How people respond to issues of death or dying is directly related to their cultural backgrounds. Anyone who works with families should be sensitive to their culture, ethnic, religious, and language diversity.

10 Practical Guidelines

  1. » Allow families to grieve the loss of their loved one in their customary ways.
  2. » Recognize that grief and loss may be expressed differently across cultures.
  3. » Use an interpreter when necessary to avoid miscommunication.
  4. » Identify important ethnic or faith leaders in the community and ask them about what support is available for families.
  5. » Avoid personal contact such as hugging or touching unless invited.
  6. » Carefully consider the words you use when speaking with family members about their loss.
  7. » Respond to family requests in a respectful and sensitive manner.
  8. » Avoid answering questions such as “why?”
  9. » Be conscious of the volume of your voice.
  10. » If you are entering a home, be conscious of your shoes.

 

Full Downloadable Guideline

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darrendake

 New Book – Get your copy now !   Click the Book to Learn more…….

Professionalism – Respect is Earned Not Granted

What's the problem?!If you want to be seen as a professional, you must present a professional image and attitude that will command respect.   You WILL NOT get the respect you need simply by your title. Respect is earned not granted.    There has been a long history of perceived and actual unprofessionalism in the Coroner industry. This has spilled over into Medical Examiners office and police agencies as well.  But by and large many coroners struggle with being accepted as a professional.   Is it industry bias, or a reality of the image the coroner is projecting?

Five Areas You Must Address

1. Need for written policy

  •     All staff from top down
  •     Procedures for all to follow
  •        Victim families
  •        Property
  •        Report dealines 

2. Attitude of cooperation

  •    With co-workers
  •    Other Agencies    Stop power pulls
  •    Interactions with families        

3. Office Organization

  •   Office area appearance
  •   Filing
  •    Reporting
  •    Returning messages   Voice and Email

4. Dress code standards

  •    At office / morgue
  •    On scenes
  •            Proper Dress    Proper Id on clothing
  •     On duty and in public
  •             This includes automobiles
  •                   Is it marked
  •                   Even Magnetic logos
  •                   What type of vehicle

5. Training    

  •       How trained are you    
  •      Can you talk and understand the field
  •      Your responsibility  to get it
  •               This podcast
  •               Reading
  •               Courses     local Sheriff Office
  •               ABMDI
  •               Use your ME


Featured Podcasts

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http://firefightertoolbox.com/

 

 

 

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http://firefightertrainingpodcast.com/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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Coroner Talk Training Room

Designed just for you. Get full access to ongoing video training modules, monthly roundtable discussions, and articles not open to the public.

Training and courses designed by and for the death investigation community.

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darrendake

Secondary Traumatic Stress – Getting Through What You Can’t Get Over

Anita Brook-corner talk-secondary stressSecondary Traumatic Stress (STS), also known as Compassion Fatigue , is a condition characterized by a gradual lessening of compassion over time. It is common among individuals that work directly with trauma victims such as coroners, police, nurses, psychologists, and first responders.  Sufferers can exhibit several symptoms including hopelessness, a decrease in experiences of pleasure, constant stress and anxiety, sleeplessness or nightmares, and a pervasive negative attitude. This can have detrimental effects on individuals, both professionally and personally, including a decrease in productivity, the inability to focus, and the development of new feelings of incompetency and self-doubt. This self-doubt can cause problems at work and home, and over time will effect all relationships.

Several personal attributes place a person at risk for developing compassion fatigue. Persons who are overly conscientious, perfectionists, and self-giving are more likely to suffer from secondary traumatic stress. Those who have low levels of social support or high levels of stress in personal life or job are also more likely to develop STS. In addition, previous histories of trauma that led to negative coping skills, such as bottling up or avoiding emotions, increase the risk for developing STS.

Many organizational attributes in the fields where STS is most common, such as the healthcare field and death investigators, contribute to compassion fatigue among the workers. For example, a “culture of silence” where stressful events such as deaths in an intensive-care unit are not discussed after the event is linked to compassion fatigue. Lack of awareness of symptoms and poor training in the risks associated with high-stress jobs can also contribute to high rates of STS.

There are no known clinical treatment options for compassion trauma, but there are a number of recommended preventative measures

Personal self-care

Stress reduction practices have been shown to be effective in preventing and treating STS. Taking a break from work, participating in breathing exercises, exercising, and other recreational activities all help reduce the stress associated with STS. In addition, establishing clear, professional boundaries and accepting the fact that successful outcomes are not always achievable can limit the effects of STS.

Social self-care

Social support can help practitioners maintain a balance in their worldview. Maintaining a diverse network of social support, from colleagues to pets, promotes a positive psychological state and can protect against STS.

 


 

Screen Shot 2014-07-18 at 7.49.33Many thanks to  Anita Agers-Brooks  for her contribution  to our community and her research on this topic.  You can find more about Anita from the link in her name.  Her knew book can be found on Amazon.  

 

 

 

 

First on the Scene – Advance Responders

Medicolegal Death Investigation Overview for First Responders
Paul R. Parker III, B.S., D-ABMDI

First RespondersPolice officers, sheriff deputies, firefighters, and EMS personnel play a critical role in medicolegal death investigations. As “first responders,” the majority of time they are, in fact, the first officials at the scene in which a death or the incident ultimately resulting in death occurs. What they see, smell, hear, do, and document are critical pieces of information required for medicolegal death investigators (MDI) to accurately write the last chapter of someone’s life story.

First responders frequently interact with Medical Examiner/Coroner (ME/C) personnel either telephonically when reporting a death or in-person while at the scene after the MDI’s arrival. Despite the frequency of interaction, oftentimes there is confusion about the ME/C role and responsibilities. When reporting a death to the ME/C, have you said, “We have a pick up for you?” How many times have you said or heard someone say, “Why isn’t this a Coroner’s case?” or “Why isn’t the Medical Examiner responding?” or “What am I supposed to do with this body now?” or “Why is the Coroner asking me so many questions? Why don’t they just come out here and pick up this body?” or “Can you believe they want me to count the oxycodone pills? Can’t they come out and count them themselves?” or “What’s taking the Coroner so long to get here?” or “Why is the Medical Examiner upset that we towed the vehicles/removed the firearm from the scene prior to their arrival?”

This podcast provides all first responders an overview of medicolegal death investigation offices, functions, and jurisdiction; expectations when interacting with ME/C personnel, both during the death report and scene investigation; and a brief discussion of scene and body indicators of various types, causes, and manners of death.

CONTACT INFORMATION:

Paul R. Parker III,   B.S., D-ABMDI

Parker Medicolegal Services, LLC

P.O. Box 20525

Fountain Hills, Arizona 85269

Telephone: 480-298-4981

Website: www.ParkerMLS.com

Email: Paul@ParkerMLS.com

Money Plan S.O.S | Financial Coaching

Money Plan sosWe all, at times,  need to take a step back and look at our personal lives.  We are always in the mix of other people’s mess and we often neglect our own.  As public servants none of us are paid what would be considered an amazing wage. However, we can take steps to live better, live smarter, and plan for tomorrow.  In this episode I talk with Steve Stewart of Money Plan S.O.S. We talk about how to come out of financial crisis mode and into a secure financial state free from fear and worry and how Financial Coaching   can help you too.

Steve Stewart is a financial coach and podcaster and can be found at the links below.  I invite you to check out his show – subscribe to his podcast and leave a review after three shows.  His down to earth advice and information is invaluable to our financial  success.  Steve’s website has tons of resources and information free to download and use.  You can find more about Money Plan SOS and Steve Stewart at:

 

http://moneyplansos.com

Podcast Link 

What Are Autoerotic Deaths – (and what they are not)

Autoerotic Death

Autoerotic deaths are accidental deaths that occur during solitary sexual activity in which some type of apparatus that was used to enhance the sexual stimulation of the deceased caused the unintentional death.

These deaths are accidental, they are not suicides as some have thought. The practitioner does not intend to die as a result of this activity, but instead, dies as a result of an overdoes of asphyxiation or a failure in the mechanism of pleasure induced by the victim.

Autoerotic deaths come in many forms and are not just from an asphyxial hanging, although asphyxia is the most common.

These deaths can also occur as a result of:

Ligature Compression of the Neck
Airway Obstruction
Chest Compression
Chemicals or Gases
Electrical Stimulation
Foreign Body Insert into Penis or Anus

By its very definition these acts are solitary. Some have proposed that when an accidental death occurs during a sexual act between two people, where the airway was obstructed or blood flow was restricted during the sexual act, should be considered an autoerotic death. However, those deaths may be accidental but not autoerotic. Auto is defined as self, one’s own, or by oneself. Although monoerotic might be a better description, auto is still the appropriate terminology.

In terms of the type of apparatus used. Some mechanism; whether ligature, mechanical, or manual has to be in use as a way to enhance the sexual stimulation and arousal of the practitioner.

Some investigators find it hard to believe that these acts are in any way sexually gratifying. This practice is very much a paraphilia act, and performed by a very slim majority of the population. It is important however to keep in mind that there are three general sources of sexual pleasure.

1. Stimulation of the genital organs .
2. Lack of oxygen to the central nervous system.Screen Shot 2015-03-01 at 08.11.32
3. The creation of a fear and anguish atmosphere.

Generally when a person first starts engaging in these acts, asphyxia or other mechanism are used in combination with masturbation or sexual intercourse. However, intercourse would rule out autoerotic by definition, but over time the need to masturbate will decrease and the asphyxia itself becomes the sexual activity.

It is important to understand that the evidence of masturbation during the fatal event is not mandatory . Quite the opposite actually, it is rare to find such evidence. It is common for the practitioner to use autoerotic stimulation as a means of sexual arousal and then masturbate to climax after having gained an erection and efficient arousal. A form of foreplay, if you will.

Autoerotic fatalities are classified as two types; typical and atypical. Typical deaths means they fit into a set of predetermined standards of accidental deaths as it relates to victimology, method, paraphilia and history. Atypical deaths do not meet these criteria. We will further explore these classifications in later chapters when victimology is addressed..

Lastly, in defining autoerotic deaths you must keep in mind that these are unintentional deaths – not suicide. But exercise extreme caution; you must rule these cases based upon the probability of available evidence.An accurate cause of death is crucial, a point of discussion later in this book. But better to rule a death suicide when a couple of scene features exist, while absolute facts cannot support a definitive

If someone dies during an autoerotic act, or sexual stimulation, as a result of heart attack, stoke, arrhythmia, etc., it is not an autoerotic death. Natural causes must be ruled

Sex and sexual activity can take a toll on the body; changing heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and adrenaline levels. Strenuous activity can be a common cause for heart attacks and strokes.

Remember, an autoerotic death must result in accidental death caused from the apparatus used to increase sexual pleasure. If a person dies as the result of a heart attack during the act of normal masturbation, normal meaning without the use of any aids other than one’s hand, the cause of death would be heart attack. The autoerotic factor would never come into play. The same would be true regardless of dress, activity, or scene features present. Further, if someone dies during a sexual game with a partner, that may very well be an accident, but by its very definition cannot be ruled autoerotic in nature because there was no intent of a solitary act.

Case example. A man in his mid 60’s was found by his wife sitting in a chair wearing only women’s shoes and a bra. A vacuum cleaner was nearby and in operation. The man’s penis was still inside the vacuum hose as it was apparent he was using it to aid in his masturbation. The medical examiner found the cause of death to be heart attack. So even though some of the scene features present are common with autoerotic deaths, and it was obvious that autoerotic activity was taking place, this was a natural causes death because the apparatus used, vacuum cleaner, did not cause the death due to a malfunction of its intended use for sexual pleasure.

Trophy Kill

This first hand true account of one of the most horrific  murders in Canadian history gives us an insight rarely gained into the mind of a murderer  and the forensics and documentation that goes into the prosecution of a murder of this caliber.  Dan Zupanksy was a prime witness in this case because of his relationship and correspondence  with the killer.  In this conversation we talk about the details of the murder and how it was prosecuted.   Below you will see actual drawings the suspect sent to Zupansaky during their correspondence .  This book is one of the few books that actual helps investigators understand the dynamics of a criminal investigation.  Actual court documents and testimony along with real correspondence

Dan Zupansky is a podcast producer and author living in Canada.  His podcast True Murder is  widely popular and an  iTunes classic.  Rated best show in genre.  You can find links to his show and Trophy Kill TV  below…..

Listen to the audio version or podcast for the full story.

Links and Contact for Dan Zupansky

http://trophykill.tv

 

True Murder Podcast

 

Actual Drawings By the Suspect Used in Prosecution

 

 

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